Google and Facebook will be unable to use the personal data they hold for advertising purposes without user permission. This is an acute challenge because, contrary to what some commentators have assumed, they cannot use a “service-wide” opt-in for everything. Nor can they deny access to their services to users who refuse to opt-in to tracking. Some parts of their businesses are likely to be disrupted more than others.
Regulating for Results: Strategies and Priorities for Leadership and Engagement Distrustful U.S. allies force spy agency to back down in encryption fight