The rally of the alt-right in Charlottesville, Virginia—a motley crew of white supremacists, neo-Nazis, Ku Klux Klan types and anti-Semites—took many people by surprise. It horrified millions of people, who thought that a small, dying breed of elderly rednecks constituted the “alt-right” and the neo-Nazi fringe. But the alt-right too was in for a shock. The men chanting hateful slogans learned a lesson about modern society. They learned that it is hard, and maybe impossible, to stay anonymous in this day and age. They learned, too, that a person who is outed publicly as a neo-Nazi or white supremacist will sometimes pay a heavy price and suffer serious consequences.